Experience and Enlightenment of developing renewab

2022-09-23
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The experience and Enlightenment of developing renewable energy in Germany

Abstract: during the 12th Five Year Plan period, the installed scale of wind power and photovoltaic power in China increased by 4 times and 168 times respectively, but the wind and light rejection rate reached nearly 20%. After setting the overall goal, it is particularly important to assess and evaluate the work of local government departments in combination with the distribution characteristics and consumption of renewable energy

Germany is the pioneer of global energy transformation and the leader of renewable energy development. In 2015, renewable energy consumption accounted for 31.6% of total electricity consumption, and the wind and light rejection rate was only about 1%. At present, although China's non-aqueous renewable energy has developed rapidly, its power generation accounts for less than 5%, and the wind rejection rate and light rejection rate have reached 21% and 12% respectively. Learning from the experience of renewable energy development in Germany is of great significance for China to achieve the goal that the proportion of non-aqueous renewable energy power generation will reach more than 9% by 2020

Germany's experience in developing renewable energy

clear goals and ideas. Germany has been dominated by coal-fired power for a long time. The rapid economic growth after World War II has led to the rapid growth of energy consumption and the deterioration of the air environment. The import dependence of major fossil energy consumption is also high. In view of this, in the 1990s, Germany put forward the energy transformation strategy, taking the development of renewable energy as one of the energy transformation goals, and introduced a law to clarify it in 2000, putting forward sub divisional and phased goals, and proposed that by 2020, renewable energy should account for at least 35% of the total electricity consumption, the renewable energy utilization goal in the transportation sector is 17%, and the renewable energy in the heating sector is 14%; By 2050, renewable energy will account for more than 80% of electricity consumption and more than 60% of terminal energy consumption. At the same time, Germany has put forward the idea of energy substitution, encouraged the development of renewable energy such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass energy, and promoted the application of renewable energy in the fields of electricity, transportation and heating by adopting advanced technologies such as distributed micro electricity and the transformation of new smart electricity

establish the legal basis. The renewable energy law (eeg-2000) issued in 2000 established the incentive policy of fixed electricity price and laid the legal foundation for renewable energy development. 3. Durometer adjustment. Since then, Germany has continuously revised and improved the renewable energy law in terms of purchase pricing, market-oriented transactions, development goals and other aspects of renewable energy power generation, effectively promoting the development of renewable energy. Eeg-2017, newly released in 2017, stipulates that the bidding mechanism for renewable energy projects will be implemented. The government will no longer purchase green power at the specified price, but will subsidize new renewable energy power generation enterprises according to the price of the lowest bidder through market bidding, and renewable energy development will enter a new market competition stage

market mechanism promotes consumption. Through market-oriented means, Germany encourages clean energy power producers to actively generate electricity and actively install energy storage equipment. First, encourage renewable energy power producers to take the initiative to accurately predict the power generation situation and improve the transaction value of renewable energy. Second, renewable energy power producers are encouraged to install demand-oriented remote monitoring and control devices, which has driven the technological progress of power generation equipment. The third is to promote the formation and development of system integrators. System integrators can act as agents for small power producers who cannot enter the power market to sell electricity. At the same time, they combine power demand units to form a virtual power plant, which helps small power producers to generate electricity for listing and trading, while achieving self balance. Through the role of market mechanism, the German government has transformed the development of renewable energy into the interests of all relevant parties, forming a virtuous circle and closed-loop chain

information notification and follow-up evaluation promote benign development. Germany has designed an information notification and disclosure mechanism and a tracking and evaluation mechanism to ensure the effective operation of the renewable energy market and the implementation of the corresponding legal provisions. First, renewable energy power producers, electricity operators and distribution operators should regularly inform each other of information as required; Secondly, customized production modes such as power operators and power distribution have been successfully expanded from ship plate production to steel for wind towers, structures, bridges, buildings, energy, etc; Large households rdquo; Industry operators should provide detailed information on renewable energy acquisition, transmission and distribution of enterprises to the German Federal Liaison Office on time; Thirdly, distribution operators should disclose renewable energy surcharges, renewable energy power share and other information to consumers; In addition, the German government regularly evaluates the implementation of the renewable energy law, submits reports to the German Bundestag, and sets up an energy transformation monitoring and reporting system, requiring the German Federal Ministry of environment, nature protection, construction and nuclear safety (BMU) to submit annual reports on the development status, target achievement, challenges and other aspects of renewable energy sources, and strengthen tracking and evaluation

Enlightenment on the development of renewable energy in China

combine the distribution characteristics and energy consumption of renewable energy, and do a good job in the decomposition and implementation of goals. During the "12th Five Year Plan" period, the installed scale of wind power and photovoltaic power in China increased by 4 times and 168 times respectively, but the wind and light rejection rate reached nearly 20%. After setting the overall goal, how to combine the two basic choices is thermosetting plastics and thermoplastic renewable energy distribution characteristics, consumption, etc. it is particularly important to assess and evaluate the work of local government departments

first, on the basis of the 13th five year plan for renewable energy development, refine medium and long-term goals and issue implementation rules according to the development status. The second is to take the renewable energy utilization rate as an important assessment index when formulating development goals, so as to promote the coordinated development of local energy consumption related industries. Third, accelerate the implementation of long-distance power transmission projects, and timely allocate renewable energy and the future development trend of the base electricity

strengthen the research and development of renewable energy power generation and technology, and reduce the cost of power generation and the impact on electricity. During the 12th Five Year Plan period, the prices of wind power equipment and photovoltaic modules in China fell by about 20% and 60% respectively, but they are still high compared with traditional fossil energy. Power generation cost and stability are the key factors for renewable energy to replace traditional fossil energy

first, continue to strengthen the research and development of photovoltaic power generation energy conversion efficiency, key technologies of wind turbines, intelligent control systems and other technologies, and reduce power generation equipment and operating costs. Second, support the research and development of renewable energy power generation prediction technology, monitoring and regulation technology, and reduce the impact on the power system. Third, strengthen the research on energy storage technology, issue relevant standards for energy storage technology, and improve the stability of renewable energy

vigorously support distributed energy and energy storage products, and encourage local consumption of renewable energy. At present, China's renewable energy utilization is dominated by centralized power generation. Affected by regional power capacity and transmission capacity, wind and light are seriously abandoned, which requires multiple measures to be taken for local consumption

first, a distributed micro enterprise with a high proportion of wind power, photovoltaic and other power access should be established according to local conditions to achieve a basic balance between local energy production and energy load through energy storage and optimal configuration. The second is to vigorously develop power battery replacement stations and lighting to adjust the peaks and troughs. The third is to develop the energy utilization and conversion industry based on the characteristics of renewable energy power generation and expand the scope of application

gradually build a market-oriented trading mechanism to improve the utilization rate of renewable energy. Strengthen the operation and management of the power system, and innovate policies and measures to improve the utilization rate of renewable energy

first, renewable energy power generation is divided into market trading electricity and guaranteed purchase electricity, and renewable energy power generation enterprises are encouraged to explore electricity market transactions. Second, establish a market-oriented trading mechanism for green certificates, realize the income of renewable energy electricity price and green certificates through market transactions, and take advantage of the low marginal cost of renewable energy to achieve priority. Third, by establishing a fair, open and flexible power market dispatching mechanism, we will gradually realize a market-oriented power pricing mechanism

establish information notification and follow-up evaluation mechanisms to promote information disclosure and implementation. At present, the market subjects and obligations of China's renewable energy industry are not clear, and the information on renewable energy power generation and demand is not unblocked. Information exchange and implementation should be promoted in a timely manner

first, establish an information mechanism for renewable energy power producers and electricity operators to inform each other. Second, relevant government departments take the initiative to disclose renewable energy R & D costs, subsidies and renewable energy power share and other information. Third, timely release the monitoring and evaluation results of renewable energy development and utilization, so that relevant units can timely understand the development status, market prospects, problems and challenges, and promote the healthy development of renewable energy

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